2. Gaps in current literature
2.1 The need for integration has long been recognised
The notion of integrated transport and land use planning has been proposed for a long time and the need for better integration of transport and land use planning is a long-standing issue in the literature.
Something of a breakthrough came in the early 2000s when the Commonwealth sponsored the production of a National Charter for Integrated Transport and Land Use Planning (Australian Transport Council 2003). The passage below from these Guidelines sums up the conceptual foundation for the integration imperative, at least as it was resolved at that time.
"Land use and transport planning has a key role to play in delivering social, economic, and environmental sustainability. Roads will continue to dominate as the means of movement for the majority of people and freight in Australia in the foreseeable future. However, by shaping the pattern of development and influencing the location, scale, density, design, and mix of land uses, planning can help to facilitate an efficient transport and land use system by:
- reducing the need to travel;
- reducing the length of journeys;
- making it safer and easier for people to access services;
- reducing the impact of transport on communities;
- improving freight access to key terminals and improved freight flows;
- providing for the efficient distribution of goods and services to business and community;
- providing a choice of travel modes; and
- ensuring flexibility to meet the demands of a changing economy and market environments".
While the National Charter for Integrated Transport and Land Use Planning was welcome, the ATAP Guidelines for ITLUP enhance the Charter by adopting two approaches:
- The traditional approach – cluster and connect
- The emerging approach – recognising the potential city shaping impact of transport.
These ATAP Guidelines for ITLUP introduce the city shaping impact of transport and provide a first step in developing an awareness, capability and practice in this important aspect of integrated planning. In time, more depth should be added to the guidance on city shaping impacts as knowledge and practice in this area evolve.